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Primary Bath


What is a bathroom?

Let’s start with defining what a bathroom is. A bathroom or washroom is a room in a home or a residential building with a bathtub, shower, a sink, and toilet. Many bathrooms have only a bathtub, a toilet, and a sink. A toilet is usually a dedicated spot or a separate room for personal hygiene activities.

The toilet and bath are usually combined in one room, and the trend is also moving towards having different rooms for the toilet and bath. In North American English, the word “bathroom” means any room with a bathroom, regardless of whether it has a bath or shower.

Bathrooms Names

full bathroom generally contains everything, such as a bath or shower (or both), a sink, and a toilet. The en suiteor attached bathroom is only accessible from a bedroom. In British terminology, a family bathroom is a full bathroom with a door opening in the hallway or corridor, not inside a bedroom. The Jack & Jill bathroom is used between occupants of two separate rooms, and this type of bathroom might also have two sinks. A wet room is waterproof with a shower, and water-resistant materials are used here.

In the United States, a primary bathroom has a bathtub and a shower adjoining the most oversized bedroom; A full bath or a complete toilet contains all four essential plumbing elements, a lavatory, a shower, a sink, and a stool. In Canada, they call everything a washroom.

What accessories does a bathroom have?


After reviewing your floor plan, you must decide the bathtub’s type, shape, and size. There are baths for every budget. Freestanding stone and cast-iron baths are expensive, but they have substantial benefits over conventional inset steel and acrylic tubs. Cast iron baths retain heat very well. Then there are also composite baths and acrylic baths. Composite also have heat well and are easy to repair.

Fittings and fixtures

Fittings and fixtures are the essential elements in the bathroom, and these need to be of high quality as water will constantly be running through them. It should be tough enough to be used daily and not require repair often. Most Fittings and fixtures are wall-mounted, and it is hard to fix. Paying more in the beginning, will pay you dividends later because there will be fewer repairs. Also, keep in mind to choose products that suit a property’s water pressure.

The tiles and flooring

The bathroom flooring is a vast topic; you need to invest time and money to get this right. It needs to suit the people who will be using the space. What budget do they have? What kind of mood do they want in their bathroom? Here is a look at all common materials used for bathroom flooring.

Porcelain: Porcelain tiles are versatile and mainly used because they are cost-effective, stylish, and waterproof. They come in all sizes and shapes, and the pros are that they are easy to maintain, waterproof, and stain-resistant.

Natural Stone: Marble, granite, limestone, or travertine can make a luxurious floor design. And these stones, especially granite, are durable and easy to care for and have been used for centuries. These are the stones you’d usually use for your kitchen countertop, and the downside is that they can be expensive.

Vinyl flooring will give you a luxury look without robbing you of your life savings. Vinyl flooring includes sheets, planks, and tiles, and they are easy to install and water-resistant.

Wood: It looks suitable for sure. They can perform as well as the more conventional options with a few precautions. One advantage would be that they can be periodically refinished and resealed, increasing their practicality.

Concrete is used in many projects because it is easy to engineer into different shapes and sizes. It is rigid, robust, and waterproof. The most important advantage is that concrete is very low-maintenance.

Laminate: Laminate flooring is suitable for small to medium bathrooms, and it is good if you take appropriate measures to maintain it. They can be slippery when wet, but manufacturers are developing slip-resistant wear layers these days. 

Storage and furniture

Storage space needs to be considered at the beginning of designing a bathroom. Even space is unique, and you must make the best of what you have. It needs to fulfill the needs of those who will be using it. The amount of furniture you need to put in there depends on space. Let us look at some popular furniture and storage equipment.

Bathroom wardrobe: A bathroom wardrobe is an essential piece of furniture if the bathroom is big enough and has a bath or shower. A walk-in closet or a walk-in wardrobe has a full door, and you can walk in there, put on fine clothes, and get changed. It is a good option because it gives you much-needed privacy. A mirrored wardrobe has a mirror and sometimes a tiny dresser attached to it, and it is suitable for dressing up and grooming sessions. A small cupboard is also used for daily and essential accessories.

Open shelves: This is the most common storage option for your bathroom. You can put anything on these shelves, from toothbrushes and toothpaste to hygiene products and electrical appliances like a hair straightener. Open shelves are made from various materials, but the wood looks the best.

Under-sink shelves: Open shelves or drawers under the sink to store essential cleaning products daily. Drawers are an excellent option to keep things organized so that you don’t have to rummage around in a dark closet when you are in a hurry.

Wicker baskets: These are versatile and can be used for multiple things. You can store towels, tissue rolls, and bathrobes in them. They also add rustic character and a touch of natural beauty to the space.

Bathroom Paint

Bathroom paints are not that different from standard paints. Even though paints labeled as bathroom paints are priced slightly higher, you can go with any paint suitable for a moist environment. The paint should have anti-microbial properties and resist molds or mildew. Make sure that it has a washable finish so that it doesn’t wear off when you scrub the walls.

Ceiling Design

A bathroom ceiling is usually the most neglected part of interior design, and it doesn’t need to be so. You can just match the ceiling design with the rest of the house. Correctly done ceiling designs add a touch of extravagance and luxury to one of the essential parts of the house. Let us see the different materials used for bathroom ceilings.

POP: Plaster of Paris false ceilings are always in trend. There are numerous additional designs to choose from, and the lights give a grandiose feel to the space and brighten up the room. Make sure to use a water-resistant type of gypsum.

Cement board ceiling: This is the perfect material for wet areas; you can cover it with tiles. When the cement board is installed as a backer material, it won’t get damaged by moisture. To help protect it more, you can use a moisture barrier such as plastic sheeting.

Acrylic: Acrylic is a fiber made from resin, and it comes in various shades, designs, sizes, and thicknesses. Hanging LED lights or panel lights from a transparent acrylic ceiling gives a striking look. And since acrylic is very light, it can be removed for any repair work.

Drywall and Green Board: Regular drywall can be used for non-shower areas of the ceiling, such as above the bathtub. But if you wish to use this in the shower, you can go with moisture-resistant drywall or green board. Greenboard is a face paper that offers extra protection from water damage. Using waterproof paint on the drywall is a good idea to prevent damage caused by rising water vapor condensing as water droplets on the surface. 

Molding: When we talk about molding, regular wooden molding can be used everywhere except for the shower area. You can use plastic or PVC molding for the shower, which looks like wood and can be mitered, installed, and painted using the same techniques. One material that should be avoided is medium-density fiberboard (MDF) or similar composite materials.

Accessorizing with plants

Plants look good indoors in all rooms, and the bathroom is no exception. There are several benefits to bringing greenery and nature inside the toilet. Plants purify the air, eliminate bacteria, and absorb extra moisture. You need to select plants that flourish in low-light and humid conditions. And there are plenty of them. Here are some varieties you can consider:

  • Snake plant
  • Tillandsia plants
  • Bromeliad
  • Bird’s nest fern
  • Boston fern
  • Ivy
  • Majesty or Parlour palm
  • Spider plant
  • Calathea
  • Pothooks
  • Peace Lily

Lighting and electrical points

Electricity and water don’t go well together, but whatever. Bathrooms need to be a relaxing environment, so planning the proper lighting will significantly impact the result. Layers of lights allow you to switch between varying brightness levels. The mood of the room is dictated by how the lighting is installed. Let us look at some lighting options.

Bright lights and dimmers: The bathroom is a space that needs to be adequately illuminated for you to do your everyday actions such as shaving, showering, and washing up. But, the bright lights can seem a little harsh when you want to take a relaxing warm bath. For this very reason, dimmers come in handy. Bright lights can be equipped with dimmers to have the best of both worlds.

Task lighting for particular zones: In some areas of the bathroom, particularly the washbasin, you need a vital light source when shaving, brushing your teeth, or washing your face. You can divide your bathroom into “zones” with different lighting needs, like the wet or vanity zones. And it makes sense to have task lighting here.

LED lighting for energy efficiency: LEDs are the most energy-efficient of all lighting options, and they are also very durable and run for years without a problem. Use LEDs for a contemporary look that is fuss-free and easy on the wallet.

Mood lighting: If you need to create a particular atmosphere and set the mood in a space, not just bathrooms, mood lights are the way to go. The kind of lights you use depends on what you want to set. You can use yellow or warm lights for a soft and flattering atmosphere. Different mood lighting can be used for different zones.

You must be careful with the wiring you use for different bathroom areas. Ensure that the wiring used in the shower is rated for a direct water spray. Similarly, it would help if you used wet-rated wiring for any other area since the whole bathroom will have a higher humidity level than the rest of the house. You would need a 15 A general circuit for all appliances, switches, and fixtures and a 20 A GFCI protected circuit for necessary bathroom wiring. 

The geyser switches need to be outside of the shower to avoid the risk of an electrical scare. The height and distance of the geyser are also significant, and it should be away from the toilet, shower, and bathtub. Overall, ensure that all the wiring is protected from direct contact with water.


This element is an essential part of bathroom interior design since the supply of water and proper drainage is the primary function of the bathroom. Here are some measurements that you need to keep in mind.

Washbasin height: Keep in mind who will be using this primarily. But, a general guideline should be that the washbasin is at least 32 to 34 inches above the ground.

Flush tank or pouring point: This is one of the most used plumbing points in the bathroom. Make sure that flush tanks work smoothly, and they should be at least 60 inches above the ground.

Showers and taps: One more frequently used part of the plumbing system needs to be meticulously planned. Some tips need to be very close to the ground, but the main faucet should be at least 32 inches above the ground, and there should be a considerable distance between the faucet and the shower.

Drainage system: Drainage systems and points should be carefully planned to avoid leaks and repairs. Individual draining issues should be determined from the toilet, sink, and bathtub.

How to design a bathroom

We have examined all the different elements in the bathroom; let us see how to correctly put it together so that this is a space where you look forward to going. When you are starting bathroom designing, always start with the layout.

Planning the bathroom layout

Let us see how different sizes of bathrooms need different layouts.

Full bathroom: This is generally a 48 sq. ft and 61 sq. ft area. A complete bathroom will have a toilet, a tub, and a sink. With 48 sq. ft, you can have a smaller 72-inch tub; with 61 sq. ft, you can use a full-size tub. A shower and a linen cabinet can also be added to a 61 sq. ft bathroom.

Eighty sq. ft full bathroom: This will have all 61 sq. ft bathroom elements, a stall, a toilet, and a shallow cabinet. This method offers two ways of bathing with a corner shower stall. 

Half bathroom: This is the ideal choice for short-term guests. With only 17 sq. ft of space, you can only have a sink and a toilet.

Three-quarter bathroom: There are two sq. ft sizes here; 44 sq. ft and 64 sq. ft. It can hold a toilet, a shower, and a sink. You can have a vanity corner, and a cabinet since having only a shower increases the whole area. You can also do a more oversized shower and a double sink instead of a cabinet founded on how you plan to use the bathroom. 

Kid’s bathroom: This can be a simple square with a large claw foot tub and a pedestal sink. You can leave much space as it is. A sitting area can be installed to monitor the kids while doing their thing. A small shower can be installed by resizing the tub.

General rules to follow when designing a bathroom

The view upon entering: You shouldn’t see the toilet as you enter the bathroom, and the basin or the bath makes a good starting point.

Choose a focal point: There should be one key piece, preferably not the toilet, that draws the eyes of the viewer. A mesmerizing vanity unit, a beautifully tiled shower, or a freestanding bath can be designed as the focal point.

Symmetrical layouts: Go for it if the room allows you to have symmetry. You can align all four main elements in one straight line. Or you can make a symmetrical layout aligned with an original sash window.

Make proper use of space: The doors should swing open freely, and there should be adequate space around the fittings. Using inward opening doors in the shower is a good idea if you have a tight space.

Add drama: Focus some of your attention on the look and feel of the bathroom also. The functionality can be married perfectly with drama if you plan carefully beforehand. There are no rules here. Unleash your creativity. You can have a clever walk-in shower behind your bath. Or an offset bath can prove to be more dynamic.


Ergonomics, simply put, is the science of modifying the space to fit the user. The goal is to eliminate discomfort and increase convenience. And, since the bathroom is of the most used rooms in the house, you need to take special care about the ergonomics here.

Height: When we say height, we don’t mean only the shower height or the washbasin height; it is for every element in the bathroom. Even the ceiling height needs to be considered. This measurement will depend mainly on the people using the toilet. If you have kids, it is best to have a separate bathroom.

Shower and tap positions: Don’t place the shower heads too close to your face; the water will hit you directly and forcefully. Install the taps and faucets at a proper height if you need to fill up a bucket or container.

Sink size and depth: If the sink is too deep, you might need to bend too much, and if it is very shallow, the water will splash back at you. Make sure to have a reasonable distance between the faucet and the sink bottom to have enough space to move your hands below the tap.

Vanity mirrors: The mirror behind the sink shouldn’t be too far away, making you always have to bend too much. These small measurements must be considered because you will be using this space daily. 

Drawers: Drawers are convenient and versatile for organizing your everyday use items. If you can have deep drawers, you need to prioritize installing them first, and they can be determined what you would use in the kitchen.

Ease of cleaning: This place needs to be cleaned frequently, and having a lot of nooks and crannies will make this everyday chore difficult. Ensure that nothing is crowded and you have room to move items to clean.

Towel rails: Can you imagine a bathroom without towels? They are an essential part, and keeping them organized is a must. Install towel rails at an optimal height for ease of access.

How to design a family bathroom

A family bathroom is a separate room accessible from the main hallway, which is the large bathroom in the house. Fittings and finishes should be low maintenance and durable because this bathroom is usually the busiest.

Using slip-resistant porcelain tiles on the floors is a good idea; they don’t wear out for years and still look amazing. Plenty of storage is essential as youngsters will use this space a lot. If space is an issue, don’t hesitate to remove the bathtub. Instead, use a space-saving shower bath. Focus on different vanity ideas like basins and mirrors.

How to design a master ensuite

A master ensuite is accessible from the primary bedroom and will likely be used by responsible adults. You can choose to splurge a little on luxury fittings and a complex lighting scheme. If you have plenty of space, you can have his and her vanity spaces with attached dressing rooms. This area is the place to splash out on things like a steam shower or a sound system. If space is limited, you can get creative with small bathroom design ideas with only a huge bathtub and a small area for the sink and toilet. Cater to your individual or the client’s style.

Guest ensuites

Guest bathrooms can be squeezed into tiny spaces with only the necessities. Please keep it simple with space-saving fittings and a cloakroom basin. Minor stuff also means that it will be a breeze to clean.

Planning shower rooms and wet rooms

The first item that you should consider is the floor. Having an anti-slip surface is essential. It doesn’t matter if it is a steel tray or a tiled floor. Always use a matte finish and never a gloss finish when choosing tile. Many steel trays offer an anti-slip option and choose a matte finish with composite trays.

It all reaches down to individual preference for design, but you can’t go wrong with minimalistic fittings. You can use an ultra-minimal frameless option or make a statement with black Crittall styles.

trending bathroom designs

If you ever went to a hotel and liked the bathroom design, you could just copy it. There is no copyright issue regarding interior design. Let us look at some interesting trends.

Minimalist bathroom design: You rarely go wrong with minimalist design in any room. It looks classy and elegant when you don’t have much going on. It depends on personal preference, but designing a minimalistic bathroom is more straightforward than other trends. You need to focus on essential fittings only and have much space. Use neutral colors such as white or off-white. This method does not mean that luxury can’t be achieved. The opposite is true. A minimalistic approach looks even more luxurious. You can have only one little accessory, like a single potted plant in an all-white background, and this will make an excellent focal point.

Spa-style bathroom: When thinking of spas, a steam room or a jacuzzi comes to mind. You can have a large bathtub instead of a jacuzzi. Or if you have space, you can go with the jacuzzi. Cause, why not? Anything that calms you down is good. Warm lighting and soft colors for the walls and tiles are the way to go.

Lots of tiles: You can use this design if you have a lot of space. Cover the walls with floor-to-ceiling tiles; it is better to use soft colors like green and light grey.

Vintage: We see many interior designers moving towards a more vintage look. For a vintage touch, you can use brass and gold utilities, like brass-induced rustic taps and basins. This method will add an air of extravagance to the space. Use a mix of modern elements and some brass and gold plumbing fixtures.

Wooden accents: Wood looks good everywhere, and the bathroom is no exception. Wooden accents are gaining popularity, and they are trending. The best way to use wood in interior design is any way you want. It can be made glossy or polished. The ceiling can be all wood, or one whole wall can be all wood. You can have the bathtub inside a wooden enclosure. The vanity countertops are a great choice to add wood since it comes in the slightest contact with water. It is also an affordable alternative when compared with other materials. The only concern is the moisture, and to combat this, you need to use semigloss and water-resistant paint.

Use different colors for different moods and trends

The first thing that your eyes see is color. Selecting the correct color for your bathroom will make or break the whole design. Let’s see which colors mean what.

Taupe: This is perfect for those who want a neutral but warm feel. You can go for several variations, but the brown-gray shade is a classic. You can do a lighter shade of taupe with more purple to hint at color.

Soft gray: This is one more neutral color while adding some edge. The cooling colors of granite and concrete are very soothing. You can add wooden elements in places to jazz up the design.

Bright white: This is simple yet eye-catching. A crisp, bright white color is the ultimate classic for bathrooms. You can try different colored tiles on the floor, and using wooden accents is an excellent idea.

Charcoal: Charcoal brings drama to any space but is still cozy. It pairs well with metallic and wooden accents for a chic yet relaxing area.

Redesigning a small bathroom

Space almost always hinders your creativity. Designing or redesigning a small bathroom to make it more luxurious and convenient is feasible. Let us look at ways to make a small bathroom look more significant than the original.

Use a corner sink instead of a regular sink to save space. A floating vanity is a visual treat and also frees up space. Installing a large mirror will give an illusion of space in a small bathroom. More enormous mirrors are cheaper and easy to install than other significant fittings.

Having various things in an already cramped space will make it look less space. Remove all non-essential accessories and focus on the essential things. The colors you use will also factor in how big your bathroom looks. It can look confined and occupied if you have five different colored materials. Use the same color as possible with only one color to highlight elements.

Final thoughts

The secret to designing a good bathroom is simple. You need to keep the user’s needs as your top priority. Function comes before looks, but you must choose one or the other. You can have a perfect marriage of aesthetics and function with proper planning.

If you are designing for someone else, sit down with the family using the bathrooms and list their priorities. A few questions that you should ask are:

  • How many people will use the bathroom?
  • How tall is the tallest person, and how short is the shortest person?
  • Do you need to install special accessibility equipment?
  • Are older people going to be using the bathroom?
  • What amount is planned to spend on luxury elements?
  • How can you save up the most amount of space?
  • Is the room well-lit? (Usually, bathrooms aren’t)
  • Can you merge the design of the bathroom with the rest of the house?

These questions will also depend on your situation. The most suitable place to start is with a good layout plan: that is the time to think about how much storage, what kind of lighting, or what utilities the client wants.