Room Design I.T. Software Tools App

Item Details

DSSM Item Details

1۔ Paint

The Medium

Acrylic paint: dries fast; it works very well for large projects, not as durable for trim or cabinets.

Oil-based Products: perfect for trim and cabinets

Urethane paint: drys fast and resist chipping

Sheen Type

Flat: most common, easiest to use, touchup is easy, non-glare, but soils easily, very porous.

Eggshell: low sheen, more cleanable than flat, 

Pearl: more sheen, more durable, but less than semi-gloss.

Semi-gloss: reflective sheen, long-lasting, used on doors, woodwork, cabinets.

High-gloss: very durable, very cleanable, high shine

Chemical make up 

VOCs: oil products have high VOCs; latex products do not have VOCs

Choosing Color

Hues look different based on items adjacent to or within the view. Light from the window or a lamp can change the look of the shade in the room, and colors can look different in different rooms. 

Sample: large samples or better than small samples. Try to use a 2 ft. x 2 ft. sample area.

Dry time: latex paint may take several hours to dry, and oil paint may take 24 hours to dry thoroughly.

Light: Colors will look different and more light than in a dark room area.

Surrounding Surfaces: contrast is essential when using rich hues. The space will balance if you have a white ceiling and white woodwork in light-colored furniture. Using paint with a little gray tone may be what you need.

Decorative Finishes

Stenciling: using a pattern to create an image on the wall

Murals: painting a scene, illustration, or lettering on a wall

Scenic painting: painting a scene on the wall

Metal leaf: adding metal fleck to paint

Venetian plaster: adding texture and paint to a surface

Strie: using the brush to create lines in the paint with glazing

Glazing: adding a stain or paint to the paint’s surface, then wiping off most of the stain with a rag.

Ragging: painting with a rag and glaze for texture

Stippling: paint using dots, not strokes with a brush

Marbleizing: drawing lines in different paint colors and then blending with a sponge or brush

Sponging: painting then rubbing with a sponge for texture

Lacquer: smooth and high gloss finish

Paint Installation Requirements

Common surfaces: drywall, plaster, plywood, concrete, metal, wallpaper, 

Labor: time to cut in around items on wall or surface, then brush or roll entire surface to blend in

Paint: latex, oil base, epoxy base

Surface preparation: clean and dry, and smooth


2 .Molding / Paneling / Cabinets

Three essential building components:

Moldings, Paneling, Cabinets

A. Molding

Base molding: used to finish the bottom of the walls

Crown Molding: used to complete the top of the walls

Case molding: used to finish the outside of doors and windows

Molding composition:

Wood: natural wood

PVC: plastic

Foam: plastic

Composite wood: wood particles 

Creating space elements with combinations of materials:

Windows trim: around the window frame

Doors trim: around the edge of the door

Wall trim: on the wall

Cabinets trim: using combinations of dimension lumber or paneling and trim

Fireplace trim: using combinations of dimension lumber or paneling and trim

Stairways trim: using combinations of dimension lumber or paneling and trim

Columns trim: using combinations of dimension lumber or paneling and trim

Beams trim: using combinations of dimension lumber or paneling and trim

Types of molding:

Standing trim: vertical

Running trim: horizontal

Shoe molding: floor

Ogees: Wall

Noses: Wall

Back bands: Wall

Capital moldings: columns

B. Paneling

Sheet paneling: usually 4×8 sheets 1/8 – 1/4 thick

Custom: panels or planks by a shop

Adding moldings: around the edge for a completed look

C. Cabinets

Cabinets are a combination of:

Shelves: inside cabinets and floating

Drawers: visible and behind doors

Doors: sliding or on hinges

Purchase methods:

Stock: ( as is )fabricated in a factory in sizes, styles, qualities, wood types, and finishes

Semi-custom: (custom) more variety of fabrication in a factory in sizes, styles, grades, wood types, and finishes

Custom: (unlimited styling) fabricated in a factory in limited sizes, styles, qualities, wood types, and finishes

Extra molding: can be added to any cabinet for that custom look.

Key Dimensions:

Standard wall cabinet depth: 12 inches

Standard wall cabinet height: 12-48 inches

Standard wall cabinet with 3-inch increments

Vanity base unit depth: 20 inches 

Standard base unit depth: 24 inches 

Standard base unit height: 30 to 36 inches 

Shelving: a three-quarter inch thick by 36 inches wide 

Design Ideas:

Use the same style of moldings throughout the space/room and house

Use the same finish (paint or stain) in the space/room

Material Choices:

a. Solid wood


Moisture: in the air or on the floor

Finish: paint or polyurethane

Grain character: smooth or rough

Wood grain type and sawing:

Open-grain: wood has an obvious pattern

Closed-grain: uniform and less visible grain

Wood sawing methods: rift, quarter and plain-sawn

b. Composite Wood

Finger-jointed wood: small pieces of wood are glued together to form a stick

Plastics: PVC plastic is used for moisture areas

c. Veneer

Slip matching: creating a repeat pattern by placing subsequent panels side by side

Book matching: creating a mirror image repeating pattern by reversing every other panel

Random matching: very good pattern

Diamond matching: creating a titular pattern by puzzling matching panels together


3. Architectural Elements


Windows, doors, skylights, and other openings have several functions and design characteristics.

For functional reasons, these items provide:

  • Security for the home.
  • Allowing sunlight and fresh air in the space.
  • Aiding movement through the space.

1A. Doors

Material: metal, wood, and glass. Solid and hollow-core.

Size: widths of 28-36 inches.Height of 82-96 inches. 1-2 inches thick.

Finish: unstained and solid stained wood, painted, laminate, plastic veneer.

Operation: folding, swinging, sliding

Fire Rating: possible on the garage, utilities, and outside

Hardware: pulls, levers, handles, locks

Door Detail:

Transom: a window space that is above the door

Cornice Block: decorative block above the jambs

Door: flush, panel glass louver, barn, screen, french

Jamb: door stop on either side of the door open

Casing: an enclosing frame, especially around a door opening

Saddle: trim under the door

Plinth Block: trim under the jamb

Door Production Styles:

Integral panels: stile with rail joint paneled doors

Applies panels: panel glued together

Glass: all glass doors or glass-paneled doors

Louvers: panels can be opened or fixed indoors

Flush: smooth flat door

Screen: screen attached to the door frame

French: 2 doors used in one opening

Barn: sliding door rail at the top of the door

1B. Windows

Material: wood, aluminum, steel, laminate, fiberglass, vinyl

Size: small to large picture windows

Finish: unstained and solid stained wood, painted, laminate, plastic veneer.

Operation: sliding, casement, single/double hung, pivot, hopper, fixed, bay

Fire Rating: metal or wood

Hardware: pulls, levers, handles, locks

Window Details:

Interior casing: would around the frame of the window

Upper sash: top edge of a window

Lower Sash: bottom frame of the window

Mullion: Frame between the window panels

Pane: the glass lit

Sill: the bottom edge of the window

Apron: trim below the sill

Window Production Styles:

Sliding or bypass: door slides on the top rail

Casement: the door is open with a crank

Double hung: each window can slide up and down

Pivot: window opens on a steel pole

Jalousie: multiple glass panel windows that crank open

Hopper: hinged at the top or bottom

Fixed: window not able to be open

Double casement: two windows that crank open

Bay: a window that bows out


4. Staircases/Stairway 

Stairway Details:

Handrail Baluster: top Rail of the stairway

Baluster: vertical rail or spindle in the stairway

Stringer: wood enclosure at the side of the steps

Newell Post: a firm post that the rails attached to

Newel; the decoration on top of the post

Nosing: the front part of a trip

Tread: the horizontal panel that is walked on

Riser: vertical panel under the tread

Landing: a platform between two flights of steps

Headroom clearance: 7 to 8 ft above newel 

Stairway Types:

Straight Run: stairway is just straight down

Angled (or winder): a stairway that turns to the right or left but has angled steps at the turn

Switch back: a stairway that changes to go the other direction down

L-shaped: stairway turns to the right or left

Curved: stairway there turns as it goes down

Spiral: stairway with steps attached to a center post


5. Fireplace

Fireplace Details:

Facing: the front of a firebox, usually brick or tile

Firebox: the area where the actual fire takes place

Hearth: the area beneath the firebox generally is stone or brick

Shelf: the top part of the fireplace for accessories

Mantel: the box above the firebox to give height for the shelf

Flue: the opening that lets the smoke out of the firebox

Fireplace Styles:

Wood-burning: wooden logs

Gas-fueled: gas or propane

Zero clearance: Metal firebox for wood or gas

Free-standing: fireplace away from the wall has an architectural item


 6. Hardware

Hardware Project Details: 

(when ordering hardware, it’s essential to have all this information )

Each item: Manufacturer, Details of the style, Item number, Finish, Operation, Where to be installed 

A. Cabinet Hardware

Cabinet Hardware:

Handles: Metal or wood, or glass

Pulls: Metal or wood, or glass

Knobs: Metal or wood, or glass

Hinges: metal

Catches: metal

Locks: metal

B. Architectural Hardware

Door Hardware:

Door knobs: an assembly that sends a metal rod into the door jamb to hold the door closed

Handles: an assembly that sends a metal rod into the door jamb to hold the door closed

Pulls: an attached u-shaped item to open open

Levers: an assembly that sends a metal rod into the door jamb to hold the door closed

Pocket door hardware: door on a top rail

Backplates: metal panels at the bottom of the door

Key plates: Metal panels around the keyhole

Rosettes: a metal or would ornament

Escutcheons: a metal or would ornament

Handle sets: a collection of different locking devices

Locks: Metal device to lock the door

Turns: Metal device to close the door

Bolts: Metal device to lock the door

Latches: Metal device to lock the door

Keys: Metal device to unlock the door

Hinges: Metal machine w

Door knockers: Metal device hinged to make noise on the door

Peephole: Little glass whole in the door to see through

Doorstop: Metal or Wooden vertical strip to holt the door from opening any further

Window Hardware:

Latches: Metal device to secure door

Levers: Metal device to secure door

Misc. Hardware:

HVAC grills: Metal or wooden bars to restrict access to air vents

Switch plates: plastic metal or wooden panels to protect wiring

Outlet plates: plastic metal or wooden panels to protect wiring

Carpet rods: Metal or would rods to fasten to steps to secure the carpet from moving

Artwork picture rods: rods that are secured to the wall to hold up pictures

Drapery hardware: Metal items are used to display and add function to drapery

Drapery rods: Metal or wood and rods that the drapery panels hang on

Drapery finals: a crowning ornament

Drapery tiebacks: items used two secure drapery open

Closet Interior Hardware and Accessories: 

Clothes polls: Metal or wood Rods to hang clothes on in a closet

Clothes mounts; item to secure the clothes pole

Hooks: the metal or wood things to hang clothes on

Accessory racks: holders two-place items in

Hardware Design Considerations:

Style: style should match just rounding interior 

Material: solid brass, steel, aluminum, porcelain, glass, stone

Finish: brass, bronze, chrome, copper, gold, nickel, silver, stainless steel

Sizing: select hardware for the proper size of the room and architectural elements

Operation: select correct wait to open the door left or right-handed

Door Handedness:

Left-hand: standing in front go the door, door swings away, hinged on my left side in the next space

Left-hand reverse: standing in front go the door, door swings to me, hinged on my left side in my space

Right-hand: standing in front go the door, door swings away, hinged on my right side in the next space

Right-hand reverse: standing in front go the door, door swings to me, hinged on my right side in my space 

Hardware Installations Guidelines:

Budget: the cost of new hardware can be expensive

Drawings: add drawings to the construction plans

Lead times: sometimes 2 to 4 months for production

Delivery: try to schedule delivery prior to installation


7. Lampshades

How to plan a nightshade

Height: should be half the size of the base. Base 40 inches/ Shade should be 20 inches or slightly less

Diameter: should be about the same diameter as the height of the base. Base 40/ shade 40-2 inches

Lamp details

Base: The lighting element base attaches to the lamp body.

Top diameter: the dimension of the top of the shade

Height: The length of the shade

Final: the screw that tightens the shade to the harp

Harp: Vertical shade support and shade attachment into the socket

Shade: the fabric covering the bulb

Bulb: Provide the light

Assembly: switch

Bottom diameter: Base of the base

Shade shapes

Shapes: bell, drum, cone, hexagon, square, empire

Peat Styles: smocking, flat pleat, shirring, flat pleat with cuff, open box pleat with space, opaque Box pleat with Space Custom Lampshades_ various shapes and sizes

Lamp Design Considerations

Shape: bell, drum, cone, hexagon, square, empire

Soft vs. Hardback: laminated for a more contemporary look or hand-sewed for the traditional look

Material: paper, cotton, silk, burlap,

Translucency: translucent needs or accent and mood lighting require a more glow for work and reading.

Decorative Trim: piping, ruffles, fringe, tape, gimp, beads, and ribbon

Pleating: smocking, flat pleat, shirring, flat pleat with cuff, Open box pleat with space, opaque box pleat with Space

Types of Connections: spider, clip-on

Finial: a screw with a metal ball or wood ball


8. Flooring

3 Choices:

Hard flooring, Resilient flooring, Soft Flooring 

Wood Floors:


Solid: all wood / I know plywood

Engineered: plywood with a finished top

Solid vs. Engineered: solid wood where there is no moisture, engineered wood if moisture


Oak: not very hard

Maple: is not very hard

Ash: not very hard

Walnut: hard 

Mahogany: hard

Bamboo: hard

Pine: soft

Fir: soft


Strip: small widths of wood 1-2 1//4 inches

Plank: medium to large widths of wood 2 1/4-9 inches

Parquet: Square wood patterns 12, 16, 24

Finishes and sealants

Natural-no stain or sealer: rough texture

Stain and sealer: water-based or oil-based

Polyurethane or Varnish: clear water-based or oil-base

Wood Treatment Finish


Modified urethane: Resistant to moisture, Hard, Quick-drying, yellows, Dry in 8-24 hours 

Water-based urethane: Clear, Won’t yellow, Quick-drying 2-6 hours, Costly

Moisture-cured urethane: Very durable and resistant to moisture, Won’t yellow, Order, Need to be professionally applied, Commercial use

Varnish Oil base: used very little anymore,

Penetrating Stain: Sealed and color, Semi-color, Limited colors

Paste wax: Applied over wood, Easy to use, Very inexpensive, Quick dry, Wears well, Must be buffed regularly

Paint: Very durable, Accessible to touch-up or re-coat, Covers the grain

Bleached: Removing oil from the wood for the consistent look of the grains, Must be applied by experienced people; oil may come back to the wood over time.

Limed: applying a white substance over a stained floor, removing the excess substances, and sealing the floor with wax works very well on open grain woods.

Ceramic / Porcelain Tile

Types of Ceramic Materials

Terra-cotta: baked earth, reddish color, strong, waterproof

White clay: allows for decoration 

Red clay: not durable, crack easily

Quarry tile_ full body, color though entire tile, extremely durable

Porcelain: super strong


Glazed: shiny and slippery

Un-glazed: dull, not slippery 

Anti-slip treatment: etch’s tile


Small tile: 1×1 and 2×2 inch square, 

medium tile: 3×3, 8×8

Large Tile: 12×12, 36×36, 48×48


Grout thickness: 1/8-1/4 or more

No grout installations: butt tile together with no or little spacing

Sealer: clear liquid installation 

Glass tile

Colors: many colors

Size: all sizes

Low Traffic: scratches easily and chips easily

Stone Tile

Durability: very durable

Format: many sizes

Color: many colors


Application: poured or block

Color: grey or stained

Texture: smooth or textured

Sealer: requires a sealer

Stone Flooring 


Marble: Solid colors plus black and white, Smooth colors with veins, Stainable, scratches easily, low traffic areas

Travertine: Beige or tan hue, Durable, Stainable, needs sealing, 

Granite: Many different colors, Durable, No solid colors, 

Flagstone: Bluestone, Neutral color from gray to red-gray to green-blue gray, Durable and outside, Few colors and no butt-joints 

Limestone: Pastel colors, Good colors, Stainable, cleaning problems, low traffic 

Slate: many colors, Inexpensive, Breakable, not smooth 

Quartzite: White, Durable, Costly

Schist: Gray, Durable, Good for wet areas

3) Resilient

Cork: a sustainable material, unstained or pre-stained, neutrals to bold colors, tiles, and planks provide sound and thermal insulation, thwarts mold and mildew growth, crush resistant, should be waxed every 6 to 12 months, re-sealed every five years.

Vinyl: durability, low cost, ease of maintenance, not affected by water, non-porous, the efficiency of the installation, six or 12-foot wide material, 12 x 12 tiles or available, low VOC. 

Rubber: very durable, some cushion, tiles or sheets or trim, base molding, stairway treads,

Leather: comes from thick saddle leather, expensive, cushiony, sound absorbent, beautiful patina to a room, aroma, darkens over time, requires regular waxing.

Linoleum: from linseed oil and other additives, sustainable, biodegradable, antimicrobial, non-allergenic, water resistant, comes in sheets, won’t crack over on even floors, flexible.

Flooring Installation Requirements


Floor installation: all tiles can be installed over smooth concrete or plywood if the seams are patched smooth. Underlayment may be needed over wood floors, 

Wall Installation: all tiles can be glued to the walls


Nailed Installation: over wood floors

Floated installation: over concrete and wood floors

Glued Installation: over concrete and wood floors


Adhesive: overall floors

Sub-surface preparation: smooth and dry is very important

Flooring samples and purchase

Variation from Quarries and Mills: must mix tiles and planks because the shading

No variation from Manufacturer: vinyl flooring it’s a manufactured product

Dye lots: essential to get the same dye lot for your project for all items


9. Wallcovering

It effectively brings color, texture, pattern, narrative, scale, and architectural interest to a room. It reinforces the design concepts, adds a layer of finish, and emphasizes sensitive enclosure.

Surfaces to cover

Four walls: usually applied to all four walls

Accent wall: a unique focal point; it can be just a different painted wall or have a different wall covering items on the wall or paintings.

Focal wall: creating character and interest for viewing using wallpaper

Niche wall: adding specialized items, pictures, photographs, art pieces, or figurines to the wall using background wallpaper

In an alcove; adding specialized items, images, photos, art pieces, or figurines to the wall, you see a background wallpaper

Wainscoting: a room is divided in half horizontally, then paint or wallpaper can be used above or below the wall divider 

Ceiling; applying wallpaper to the ceiling

Folding screen: applying wallpaper to the flat surface of the screen

Back of a bookcase: using wallpaper on the back of a bookcase

Back of built-in shelving: Applied wallpaper to the back of the shelving

Faux headboard; applying wallpaper to create a headboard on the wall

Paper: a paper product that comes in rolls and is pasted to the wall surface or ceilings. The paper is silk screen printed, hand printed, or digitally printed. Paper, it’s incredibly delicate, and it tears easily. Washable wallpaper has the surface covered with a coating of latex or polyvinyl chloride, making the paper very easy to wash and remove.

Vinyl: are washable and durable, and some are highly textured to hide I am perfect walls. Vinyl papers or often used to simulate silk, linen, paper, and grasscloth. The whole roll of material can be used without trimming the edge of the vinyl.

Scenic: images displayed on the wall, using multiple printed strips of paper/vinyl installed side-by-side to create the image.

Grass cloth: is a complex framework with all-natural materials. The materials are woven together using cotton thread and seagrass strands, which are then fastened to a lightweight back of the grasscloth—a long process of weaving natural fibers together.

Paper-back textiles: Wallpaper backing is a non-woven material applied to the back of fabrics to make them suitable for wall coverings. This adds body stability and makes the fabric easier to work with when cutting and pasting onto a wall.

Fabric: Knit backing is permanently bonded to the back of fabrics, adding body, resiliency, and durability while eliminating seam slippage. This backing makes lightweight fabrics such as silks, pieces of cotton, and chenille more suitable for upholstery use. These include silks, velvets, polys, bits of cotton, plaids, stripes,

Specialty: Stain protection technologies make it easier to keep the upholsteries, draperies, and delicate fabrics looking fresh and clean, protecting them from the soil, stains, and spills. New processes do not impact the fabric’s weight, look, feel, or color.

Natural fiber fabrics exposed to sunlight will fade over time. Ultraviolet treatments will minimize the effects of the sun by blocking ultra-violet rays, prolonging the use, and increasing the colorfastness of the fabric.

Exotic: almost any natural grown product can be backed with paper or fabric lining, then dyed that installed.

Upholstered: similar to installing carpet, attach a wood frame around the wall to be installed, then batting/pad in the middle, then stretch to install with the staple gun, trimming the border edges with a knife, then completing finishing the process with decorative tape, ribbon or piping.

Wallpaper design considerations:

Aesthetics: the color, the style, the texture

Function: to add character, to cover a wall

Who uses the room: adults, children, work, entertainment

Formal or informal: smooth, clean lines, symmetrical or textured, curved, wavy lines.

Exposed surfaces or corners: hands can touch, or bodies can bump into the surface

Atmosphere: formality, welcome, closeness, softness, intimacy, boldness

Proportions: visual modification of the space with wallpaper

Architectural features: added to and supporting the features

Treatment emphasis: enhancing the space

Bold or neutral: small rooms could use a bold pattern, and areas for artwork may choose a neutral pattern

Pattern size: if you have large pattern furniture, then small print for the walls 

Choosing the Right Wallpaper 

Desired Outcome_Considerations/Challenges: 

1- Pattern Regularity, Digitally printed, Natural materials 

2- Color Consistency, Vinyl, Natural materials 

3- Imperfect walls, Textured or embossed pattern, Fine smooth 

4- Eco-friendly, Natural fibers-Grass cloth, cork, water-based ink colors, Vinyl 

5- Children spaces, Washable, fine smooth 

6- Acoustical Issues, Cork, upholstery, textured 

7- Durable and washable, Vinyl, Grasscloth to textile

Wallpaper installation Issues:

Seams: depending on the paper seems may be invisible, but they have to be secured to the wall

The focal point of pattern: consideration should be made if the pattern has a large pattern; care to start the pattern at the ceiling or centered on the wall.

Wall prep: smooth, clean, wall

Wall liner: to cover textural imperfections in the wall, cover any cracks, protect from discoloration, and aid in the removal process.

Hiding seams: double cutting seems will help, 

Ordering material: number of wall panels needed width-wise, add the length of the pattern match to each panel plus 10%

Dye lots: order the amount for each room with the same dye lot

Wallpaper Widths and Issues:

Type_ Width of Roll/Issues 

Paper English made: 22 inches, Easy to tear when wet 

Paper French made: 18 to 22 inches; easy to pull when wet 

Washable paper American made: 36 inches or 21 and 27, Large pattern of repeats, not available 

Printed paper hand or block:18 to 36 inches

Linen and grasscloth: 36 inches or 21 and 27, stained easily 

Commercial vinyl: 51 or 54 inches, commercial feeling

Fabric paperback: The width of the fabric bulk, cleaning problems


10. Fabrics and Textiles

Fabrics are a way to add a soft touch to the hard-edged elements of the interior setting.

For accessories seating, to soften floors, soften tabletops, soften bedrooms, and cover windows, there are throw pillows, area rugs, and fabric shades.

Window Treatment draperies, valances, curtains

Wall Treatments: fabric, grasscloth

Upholstered Furniture: sofa, loveseat, sectional, chair, recliner, ottoman, theater seating,

Cushions: pillow, throw, chaise, chairs

Tablecloths: fitted, round, 4’ runner, 6’ runner, 8’ runner

Bedspreads: candlewick, quilted, knitted, Indian, throw, reversible

Bed skirts: linen, chenille, faux suede, taffeta

Rugs: hand-knotted, hand-tufted, flatware, handloom, machine-made, hooked, hide, braided

Fiber Type

Natural: wool, cotton, silk, linen, leather, mohair, bamboo

Synthetic: nylon, polyester, rayon, vinyl, acrylic

Hybrids: Viscose, bamboo rayon, bamboo viscose 

Textile Fibers

Natural and Hybrid Fibers

Positive Characteristic/Negative Characteristic

Wool: Flame-resistant, Wrinkling, abrasion, and spoiling resistant, Twist or crimp naturally, Wear-resistant, Good for Rugs; moths can damage, Not smooth, Dull colors.

Cotton: Low cost, Durable, Smooth, Cleans easy, Allows air flow, Wrinkles, and Holds water.

Silk: See-through fabric, Pleasurable, Strong construction, Hangs straight, Beautiful hues, Moths can damage, Sun can rot, Soils easily

Linen: Good construction, Satisfactory texture, No lint, Small lump texture, Lacks residency, Holds water

Leather: Fold without creases, Ages beautifully, Pleasant scent

Mohair: More pleasing than wool, Dye’s well, More costly than wool, Not smooth

Viscose/Bamboo-Rayon/Bamboo-Viscose: Soft touch, Body, Hangs nicely, Stretches easily, Absorbs dirt

Textile Fibers

Synthetic Fibers/Positive Characteristic/Negative Characteristic

Acrylic: Similar to natural fibers, Outdoor use, Good wearing fabric, Not rough feeling, Doesn’t feel good, Not very durable

Nylon: Durable, Insect resistant, Does wrinkle, Static 

Polyester: Low cost, Sunlight resistant, Durable, Insect resistant, Does wrinkle, Hard to clean, Static, Come off in flakes

Rayon: See-through, Durable, Wrinkles, Water weaken the fabric

Vinyl: Faux Leather, Microsuede, Low cost, Stain proof, Washable, Traps moisture, Uneven colors

Yarn properties: 

Length: fabrics that pill and shed generally have shorter fiber. Fibers are short with natural fibers.

Elasticity: Fibers that stretch without snapping. 

Luster: Smoothness is based on the level of light reflectance. Short fibers can be polished after weaving.

Strength: The greater the strength of the yard by longer fibers. Natural fibers are short, while synthetic fibers are long.

Flammability: Wool is naturally fire resistant, and synthetic fibers are flammable and must be treated.

Resistance to sunlight: Disintegration and color fading are less for synthetic fibers.

Textiles are made:

  1. The primary material, fiber, is extruded into a filament or spun into yarn.
  2. Cloth is constructed from yarn (woven, knitted, felted, etc.).
  3. Greige goods (the unprocessed cloth) are dyed in color or printed with a pattern (sometimes both).
  4. Polishing/embossing or backing is then added to the new fabric.

Construction of Fabric:

Textiles: Weaving, knitting, or knotting yarns together by punching the fibers into backing by human hand or machine is how fabrics are made. 

Textiles: Woven textiles are made on a loom with vertical and horizontal motion. 

Weft direction: essential. Extra weft yarns for decorative effect. Few fabrics are reversible.

Thread count: more yarns per inch is essential.

Textiles finishing treatment:

Backings: are applied to the back side of fabrics.

Paper: bonding paper to the back of the fabric for wall covering

Knit: stabilizes the material for use as upholstery by preventing sagging and strengthening the seams.

Front treatments: applied to the face or front of the fabric

Chintz: makes shiner and more resistant t dirt.

Calendaring: pressed with hot rollers to make it flatter.

Moire:m pressed with hot rollers with ribs for a wavy effect.

Embossing: pressed with a hot plate or rollers for the pattern.

Embroidery: needlework applied to the fabric.

Quilting: Polyester is bonded and then topstitched to a pattern.

Laminating: vinyl or plastic is bonded to the back of the fabric.

Chemical Treatment_

Applied: over fabric to make stain-repellent, water-resistant; easier to clean.

Leather Hide:

Sold: by the square foot but must purchase a half or full hide. High waste factor.

Types of leather:

*Full-grain: leather is natural

*Top grain:has some corrections

*Split leather: is the center of the hide


11. Furniture and Upholstery

Basic categories of furniture


Coffee table: placed in front of a sofa or two chairs to support decorating of objects, books and magazines, drinking coasters, and snack food.

Side table: place beside sofa or chair, to support a lamp, reading items, arts, decor items.

Console: placed behind a sofa, down a hallway with a mirror or painting above, or positioned in an entry or foyer to set mail, keys, or decor items on.

Demilune: place near a fireplace, a doorway, or other focal points. The half-round curved edge is space efficient in tight areas.

Dining table: placed in the dining room or eating area. Used for meals, homework, or bookwork.

Library table: placed as a focal point. Chairs or ottomans can be placed on either/both sides. The table can hold a floral display, stack the books, a shawl, or decor art.

Case Goods

Desk: placed against the wall or away from a wall. Use was doing business, homework, or conversation.

Bookcase: placed against the wall and used for books, a collection of items, art, or souvenirs.

Storage cabinet: placed against the wall. Storage for office, memorabilia, children’s, or work items.


Dining chair: place host chairs with arms at the head and foot of the table. Place chairs without arms along the sides of the table.

Bench: placed at the side of a table, hearth, or the end of a bed. Used to identify items on or to replace several chairs to sit on.

Sofa: placed against the wall or backed to the walkway. It can be used for sitting for 2-3 people. Used for formal and informal settings.

Loveseat: placed in small spaces. Upholstered sofa for two people.

Settee: placed as a focal item. The seating has a finished frame, minimal upholstery, and a small scale.

Club: placed for comfortable sitting. The upholstered chair is suitable for conversational settings. Two chairs are placed for a conversation and one chair by itself for reading.

Occasional chair: a place for a movable chair. A lightweight chair with an exposed frame that could be moved easily.

Slipper chair: a place for conversation or reading. A lightweight chair, armless and fully upholstered.

Desk chair: placed as a work chair. Comfortable seat with supportive arms and back. 

Ottoman: placed as a footrest or coffee table. An upholstery item is square, round, or rectangle.

Footstool: placed near a chair or in front of a chair. Used as a footrest or extra seating.

Pouf: placed as a chair or footstool. A large upholstery item could have a backrest.

Upholstery Seating

Upholstered pieces are the main items of the seating area and should be scaled appropriately: to the space, to the primary user, and the use of the room.


To create a suitable frame: construct with dowels and glue and screws, corner-blocked and reinforced to maintain structural integrity.

Material: Maple is the best for finding furniture, but lesser hardwoods are used—Oak, mahogany, and walnut.

Shape: the frame determines the size of the finished item.

Exposure: the Frame can be partially exposed or fully exposed.


Extension: the distance the extension is from the vertical back.

Relationship to the front plan of Sofa: flush or set-back from the front of the sofa

Shape: round, straight, curved, sloping, panel fronted or high or low

Style: pleaded slope, English arm with cushion, track arm, sock arm, track arm with square, panel arm

Welting/piping: special cord or same as upholstery fabric or contrasting

Outside Back

Usually the same as the front, but a complementary or contrasting fabric can be used.

Shape: straight, angled, flared, or curved to the arms

Skirted: around the whole base or just on the front and two sides

Inside Back and Back Cushions

Tight back: maybe tufted, button-tufted, or have vertical channels. A firm back is a tight back.

Loose cushions: not attached to the frame; the back cushions rise 3-5 inches above the outside back.

Semi-attached: sewn into place, the back cushions appear to be loose

Pillow back: a layered effect, with many cushions arranged along the back.

Upper Edge Shape

Straight: the height of the back pillows falls below their height

Extra size: up to 36 plus, creating shelter and enclosure

Camelback: the middle is curved and slopes down on the sides

Skirt Style

Pleated: regular pleats are formed fabric that can be small to large. Accent the crease with a button, bow, or passementerie. 

Dressmaker: same as a kick pleat, but it is under the seat cushion

Fringe: can be played over a skirt

Tight: a smooth style

Gathered: Feminine and traditional gathered fabric

Seat Support

Eight-way: hand-tied springs tied in eight different ways

Sinuous: consists of heavy-gauge steel wires formed in continuous, vertical S-shaped coils

Web suspension: consists of coils mounted on a metal frame, which is then added to the furniture as a single piece


Material: exposed wood, metal, upholstered wood, can have metal toes, casters, and gliders.

Style: modern and contemporary have simple straight feet. 

Block: 4 inches tall 4×4 wide

Tapered: straight a top 2.5 inched to 1 inch

Upholstery: 4×4 block covered

Bun foot: round ball 4×4

Carved: 4 inches carved


Firm cushion: high-density polyethylene wrapped in poly-macron or cotton

Softer pillow: mix with down and feathers from waterfowl. usually 80% down and 20% feathers

Luxury: high-density polyethylene covered in 80% down and 20% feathers

Springs: wrapped in high-density foam

Chair details:

Back coil: and webbing_Coil is tied to fabric; Web suspension is a design that creates a sofa cushion support similar to a hammock.

Kiln-dried wood frame: oak, maple, cherry walnut; stronger and better suited

Webbing is woven underneath: a design that creates a sofa cushion support similar to a hammock.

Stuffing: cotton batting, wool batting, animal hair, feather

Upholstery cover: natural fiber, synthetic fiber, 

Welt: simply a fabric-covered cord that follows the seam of a chair cushion, sofa cushion, or pillow

Dacron-wrapped Down and feather: used to wrap cushions to create a sharper and fulfilled appearance.

Foam: charcoal, closed cell, dry fast, high density, high resilience, latex, lux, memory, polyurethane, rebond

Edge roll: It goes around the front edge of a chair or sofa to soften the wood edge of the frame

Muslin: is a weightless cotton material that generally comes bleached or un-dyed//

Coiled springs: Drop-in coils are coils mounted on a metal frame added to the furniture as a single piece

Embellishments, Trim, Buttons, Nails

Passementerie: developed to hide seams

Trim: made from yardage

Braid: ribbon-like flat 1-4 inches

Cording: twisted yard with or without flange

Fringe: hanging cords or threads

Gallon: ribbon-like trim made of gold, silver, silk, or a combination

Gimp: nailed or glued the frame on upholstery

Roche: looped or sewn into a flange are twisted yards

Tape/ border: to cover edges and seams, a flat banding is used

Tassel: tying yarns and cords together to dangle


Rosette and button: ornament to look like a rose with a tassel in the middle

Frog: ornamental braiding with three loops resembling a cloverleaf

Key tassel: a tassel including a cord loop

Tieback: a cord to tieback drapery

Chair tie: tie back a seat cushion

Loose Pillow 

Shape: Ruffle flange square, Turkish cornier square, knife edge rectangular, specialty rectangular, gathered Turkish corner rectangular, Turkish end cylinder, Ball shape.

Color: many

Pattern: pieced and quilted

Corner Treatments: Knife edge, gathered, Turkish corners 

Edge Treatment: Decorative cording, welting, fringe, flange, ruffles


12. Window Treatment

Create a Design Component

The windows from the outside of a house present a building’s facade with a sensitive scale, hierarchy and rhythm. The windows offer a space/room purpose and character from inside the house.

Displaying DESIGN characteristics by:

Creates an emphasis on the windows

Adding the illusion of height to windows

Corrects any space proportions

Frame an appealing item or fixes a problem

Adds to a decorative scheme with color, texture, pattern, and details

Displaying Functional characteristics by:

Provides privacy

Aids in reducing the glare of daylight and streetlights

Reduces sound

Helps with heating and cooling

Aids with energy efficiency

 Window Treatment Controls


Drapes: Light Control, Thermal Control, Energy Control, Sound control

Shades: Light Control, Thermal Control, Energy Control, Sound control

Blinds: Light Control, Thermal Control

Shutters: Light Control


Fabric: is hung from a wall-mounted rod or a track—a unique mixture of structure and softness. The look can be crisp and folded or loose and billowing—a strong architectural statement with vertical panels and a combination of color and pattern.

Fabric type: the pattern, weave structure, and dimensional stability will tell: what style of drapery can be created, what lining will be necessary to add body, volume, and sun protection, and what pleating and heading type is appropriate.

Pattern: when the drapery is tight, pleats or folds are billowing, and there must be a consideration for repeat, scale, and how the pattern will appear. It’s essential to figure out how the motif should be positioned when choosing a top treatment: offset or centered. At the leading edge of the panels, it is essential to consider how the pattern will present. Which color should be displayed at the border, and should the full width be present when a striped fabric is used.

Lining: Insulation and light blocking can be achieved with lining. For aesthetic purposes, light-blocking natural light will help not let the drapery take a yellow cast. The drape will display better with lining.

Decorative lining: By complementing or contrasting, a decorative lining can add to the design of the primary fabric. The lining faces the window, and it will give a bolder hue which may or may not be desired, so be strategic about the color.

Interlining: the front fabric and the rear lining will have an additional layer so in between them. The facing fabric looks better by helping the curtain drain and can ensure opacity. The drapery weighs more and has more thickness than the inner lining.

Blackout lining: in bedrooms and home theaters, it is a must to have complete white blocking.

Unlined: admits more daylight for a more casual look.

Under-drapes: sheer or semi-transparent fabric in a woven pattern are for simple casement curtains.

Fullness: a drapery panel’s fullness depends on the width of the panel concerning the distance when it’s closed. Generally, the range is 2 to 3 times the span. Foreigners depend on the style of this pleat: pinch pleat, french, pencil, box, inverted, smoking.

Top Treatments: a method to balance the panel’s design is by adding a delicate balance or stiff cornice. A covering curtain rod can finish the drapery, and the panel fabric should coordinate with a valance.

Valance: the elaborate detailing may be more of them the curtain panels: ribbons, rosettes, bows, cards, fancy pleading; this is the most common type of treatment.

Swag, Jabot, Cascade_ across the top of the window, these loose treatments extend wrapping around the curtain rod and drapes down the sides.

The cornice is visually greater than a soft valance and has more architectural presence; this pattern plywood or solid wood form is sheathed in fabric.

Pelmet: similar to cornice and a valance, this element is soft but firm with jute padding.

Lambrequin: The U-shaped treatment is stiff and attached to the window’s top and sides of the frame.

Edge Treatment: the leading edge of a drapery panel is often embellished; by adding whimsy and some geometric elements by using trims such as welting and braids.

Rod versus Track: Hidden tracks or rods can be used to hang curtains. 

Operation: fix draperies or more decorative if they are designed to stay open, not pulled shut. Secondary treatment is added to control light and privacy. A chain or motorized controls are used to operate curtain rods using cords. 

Hanging Style: panels can be held to the side and gathered or hung straight. Panels have a crisper look when they hang straight; this is the preferred method for operable curtains. Tableau style, holdback, tieback, rings, loops

Fullness: Fullness for gathered curtains is the width of the curtain panel, not the distance the panel intends to occupy or span.

Curtain Length: the length of curtains can be hard to determine for the appropriate size. Curtains can look unfinished if too short of panels. Curtains can feel outdated if overly too long.

Sill Height: if there is architectural interruption below the sill, then stopping at the sill is the appropriate length.

Apron height: An awkward window can be given a little grace by extending the side drapery panels just past the sill.

Above the floor: the draperies will look under-scaled, generally not advised, but some situations will demand this. The standard height is about the floor is 3 inches above the floor.

Break: just touching the floor when curtains are too long at the floor.

Puddle: the panel length requires an extra 2 inches of fabric, be sure to use reflective or smooth materials. This method gives the space that little bit of a romantic mood.

B. Shades

Shows are a good choice for privacy and light control; they provide thermal insulation. Shades, as well as decorations, can be practical. They can create a single treatment for a window or be used in conjunction with drapes. Shades can be laminated for blackout lining, customized with flat ribbons and tassel pulls, or used unlined to filter sunlight.

Plane shades have a simple, tailored, flat surface. Where the shade has raised, they allow plenty of light and a great view. 

Gathered shades: They are more decorative and fuller than plane shades. They provide a more formal look and require more fabric. They are mounted outside the window frame to cover the frame and a window. 

Lining: shades can gather, raise, and lower a lightweight fabric with cords. Structural integrity is very little since it’s only a piece of cloth. The standard options are simple cotton sateen or thin cotton, allowing light to filter. Flannel and vinyl are the other options for the lining.

Edge Treatment: design opportunities can be at the shade edges. Ribbons, tape, or trims can be added to the sides and the shades on the bottom. A good accent for Roman shade is a flat ribbon about 4 inches from all edges.

Top treatment: to give a finished look and to hide the track and mounting devices, plain shades are sometimes topped by a small 4-inch cornice.

Operation: Shades can be raised or lowered by motorized controls or hand.

C. Blinds

Blinds are manufactured with metal, wood, or plastic with operable slats (call vans); they control vertical or horizontal movement. The blinds control light, privacy, and ventilation; a wand is used to angle the vanes. With interiors that require more neutral colors, then neutral blinds are better than full colored and patterns.

Wooden and Venetian blinds have a solid decorative even architectural appearance; traditionally, they have two-inch slats and a horizontal look. Standard wood colors, such as pine, cherry, and oak, are used for wooden blinds.

D. Shutters

Hinged vertical panels or like doors, usually made of wood and often louvered, cover the window to block light. When the shutter is open, they touch the adjacent wall surface.

Window Treatment considerations

Design questions:

  1. The top frame of the window to the ceiling is what distance? The exact size and the heights below the window to the floor?
  2. On each side of the window, how much wall space is needed?
  3. What is the operation of the window or door?
  4. Do any of the handles or cranks extend into the room?
  5. Is the window flush to the wall or inset into the wall?
  6. Does the window have a window sill?
  7. Is the window above a radiator or heat pump?
  8. Are there any baseboards, HVAC vents, or equipment in the way?
  9. Will the drapery operation affect the window operation? 

Multiple window format: some rooms have different size windows. A good challenge is how to unify the appearance of the windows with window treatments. This project can be accomplished using the same fabric, hardware, trim, and a similar window treatment design and fabrication method.

Large radiator: have the window treatment fall to the bottom of the sill, or panels fall to either side of the radiator.

Windows adjacent: using a single shade ( or pair), treating the pair of windows as one to cover the surface. Use a single valance or only drapery panels.

Bay window: a recessed bay window usually requires a shade or blind.

Small window Room: make the window look taller and broader by mounting the draperies higher and more comprehensive than the actual window.

Total darkness: draperies and blinds should be installed beyond the window frame with black-out shades or panels.

Poor view: use blinds or sheer drapery.

Arched window: use and insert gathered curtain.

Modern room: use solid color simple rod draperies, blinds, or shades of neutral color.

Sliding glass wall: use one type of fabric for the panels, and hang them recess or surface mounted.

French doors: attached to the door panels, gathered curtains on fixed rods.

Expansive Long windows use multiple shades.


13. Soft Floor Coverings

Fundamental building block for many interiors.

Wall-to-wall carpet:

Can unity a space, warms the environment, and improves acoustics.

Reinforces the space personality with color, pattern, and texture.

Area Rugs:

Standard size: 3×5, 6×8, 8×10, 9×12, 10×12

Customs: any size can be made of (Broad Loop) Carpet and then bound.

Wall-to-Wall carpet:

Width: usually 12 feet, but 13.6 ft. and 15 ft. are available in certain styles. 

Installation-First seamed to fit space, then stretched-in over pad or glue directly to the floor.

Carpet Tile:

Installation: The standard size is 18 to 20 inches square, then installed with pressure-sensitive adhesive.

Pad: is already attached to the back of the carpet

Design Considerations:


Natural: wool, silk, linen, cotton, jute, sisal, sea grass, leather, cowhides, viscose, and bamboo

Synthetic: nylon, olefin, and polyester.


Woven: They are made on a loom using a specific weave direction. The woven look has artistic merit, which creates a more casual feel. Flooring will not lay completely flat or perfectly square, and the rug’s ends are bound.

Tufted: fibers are punched into a jute or canvas backing, stabilizing the rug, and then backed with jute, latex, or foam.

Loop carpet: the side of the yard creates the rug’s surface because both ends of the yarn adhere to the backing.

Cut pile: one side of the yarn has adhered to the backing while the other side of the yard creates the surface.

Shearing: cuts the looped surface

Cut and loop pile: a combination of loop and shearing

Pile Density; the amount of yarn in the face of the carpet

Pile height: Long pile heights will fall over and be crushed

Hand Knotted: woven in linear rows, labor-intensive

Needlepoint: very expensive and labor-intensive

Coloration and Dyeing

Vegetable dyeing: usually use four natural yarns

Solution dyeing: for synthetic yards

Rug Customization

Lead time: 30 days to 6 months

Cost: expensive

Material: wool, silk, wool-silk blend, and nylon


Seams: carpet is directional and must be installed in the same direction. Hot melt tape is under the carpet on the seams.

Padding: rubber, urethane foam, synthetic nylon


Waterfall; carpet pile direction falls down the steps, then to the base of the step

Hollywood: carpet is tacked under the stair tread and then down to the base of the step.


14. Lighting

The lighting plan influences the space’s ambiance, atmosphere, and emotion, and the right plan can create excitement, richness, mystery, or calmness. The program should call for a mix of ambient lighting for overhead use and task and accent lighting for particular areas.

Lighting types

Ambient: gives overall lighting from above (overhead)

Task: more controlled and focused Lighting ( hanging)

Accent: feature lighting on an item or architecture

Lighting Areas:

Indirect areas: ceiling coves, reflective light, and wall washing, adding light to the room’s boundaries.

Direct Lighting: accent light and task light, sense intimacy and coziness

Focal Point lighting: develops a point of interest


Every space should have a blend of different light sources.

Architectural Lighting: exposed (Track) or concealed (recessed) lighting will depend on the structure and design.

Ceiling Fixtures: chandeliers and pendants lights or surface-mounted flush lights

Wall Sconces: Wall-mounted fixtures

Floor and table lamps: provide both ambiance and task light

Design considerations

Finishes: painted, usually white, black, or bronze; silver, chrome, nickel, gold 

Focal Points: each room has a different focal point. What does the homeowner want to emphasize? Does a seating group need light? Does a reading nook need a light? 

Dimmability: dimmability allows for greater flexibility


Channeling: Solutions for going through the concrete slab or recessed ceilings

Junction box: the place where the wiring comes together or where a fixture, switch, or plug is added. 

Light Lamps/LampDetails

LED_Low energy/ Low maintenance with bright white light, Long use, warm 2400——-cool 6500

Fluorescent: Not good color, Long use, Warm 2800 ——cool 4500

Incandescent: Warm light, Short use, Warm 2700 —-cool 2900

Halogen: Good light. Moderate use.

Key Lighting considerations

Proper height and location are critical to the use of the space.

Sconce: approximately, mounting height about 60-72 inches

Chandelier: approximately inched above a dining table or 84 inches above a floor

Pendant: approximately 24-30 inches above kitchen cabinets

Reading: approximately 18 inches above the surface

Footpath: approximately 12 inches above the floor


15. Art and Accessories 


Location: hang on walls, above sofa, above the dining credenza, odd corner of a room, hallway, stairway

Installation: hanging with picture hooks, set on shelves, leaned against the wall,

Framing: matt, color, size, style

Arrangement: with the top edge of the picture, random

Free-form Composition: use template

Backdrop: neutral wall, dark hue, a light hue


What to use

Use to add color to neutral space.

Use to scale and shape the areas.

Use to add a sense of intimacy to an ample space or item.

Use to help finish to complete design look.

Use to enhance to design function.

Use a combination of NEW and existing items.

Use items to add varying scales and sizes.

Use some LARGER scale items: Boxes, Bowls, Books, Glassware, etc.

Where to find them

Client’s storage areas: closets, attics, cabinets, etc.

Stores: antique shops, re-purpose stores, used items shops, garage sales, etc.

Stores: Department stores, specialty shops, etc.

Parents/friends: their attics, cabinets, closets, etc.

Where to put 

Cabinets: kitchen, baths, furniture cabinets with open shelves,

Countertop: kitchen, vanity top, etc.

Tabletop: dining table, end table, coffee table, accent, etc.

Buffet, console: dining room, etc.

Dresser: bedroom, etc.,

Chest-of-Drawers: bedroom, living room, etc.

Shelving: Kitchen, Family, etc. 

Nightstand: bedroom.

Desks: office, etc.

Fireplace: mantel, hearth, etc.

How to Arrange them

Elevation changes: setting or placing items to different heights

Symmetry and pairs: balanced or correct or pleasing proportion of the parts

Color balance: a distribution of colors resulting in a feeling

Telescoping: viewing of the space through multiple rooms

Positive/negative space: space with elements or items and space with nothing

Rules of Three: Asymmetry with 3 items


16. Human factors and Universal Design

1. Anthropometry

This method is the basic understanding of the human body, including its capabilities and limitations.

It is beneficial in space design and planning for space with functions and activities. 

Structural Anthropometry

Many dimensions related to the human body:

Vertical body height

Eye height

Sitting height

Body width

Functional Anthropometry

The vertical reach of their body

The side-arm reach of the body


17. Ergonomic and Universal design 

Universal design is inclusive and equitable, meeting the needs of a significant number of people and a variety of people.

Seven principles of universal design:

Equitable use 

Design is valuable and sellable to people with various abilities.

Flexibility in use 

The design adapts a broad spectrum of individual choices and abilities.

Simple and intuitive use 

Design is uncomplicated to comprehend.

Nevertheless, of the user’s knowledge, ability, language aptitudes, or current attention level.

Perceptible information

Design displays necessary information actually to the user.

Nevertheless, of ambient circumstances, the users’ sensory abilities.

Tolerance for error

Design lessens hazards and the adverse outcomes of accidental or unintentional actions.

Low physical effort 

Design can be utilized efficiently, quickly, and with a low amount of fatigue.

Space and size 

Design for approach and use appropriate size and space.

Use the approach to reach, manipulate, and use, regardless of the user’s body size, posture, or mobility.

Terms used for the universal design:

Lifespan design

Design for the transformations that may materialize in the lifespan of household people.

Trans-generational design

Acknowledges and supports multiple generations of users.

Barrier-free design 

Remove barriers in the environment from the user.

Accessible design 

The lowest level of design is required to adapt to people with disabilities.

Adaptable design 

Characteristics that are either adjustable or capable of being effortlessly added or removed to adjust to an individual’s needs or preferences

Visit ability 

Basic accommodations that will allow people of different abilities to visit our home 

Flex housing 

Design that is incorporated at the construction stage 

Universal design myths:

Myth one: universal design is nothing more than a design for people in wheelchairs 

Myth two: universal design only helps people with disabilities and older people 

Myth three universal design costs more than traditional design 

Myth four: universal design is stigmatizing because it looks like medical 


18. Infrastructure Considerations and Issues


Weight of Oversized appliances: for washers, dryers, stoves, ranges, and refrigerators. 

Underneath the primary floor may need more support for stability with 2×12 planks.

Stability and Un-even Floors: noise and smooth floor are required, may have to use underpayment to level.

Moist Control:vapor deterrents are needed to shield the floor

All Walls

//Load-bearing: the main walls that reinforce the roof in the upper stories of your house.

Uneven or level walls and out-of-square ceilings and walls: over the years, walls crack, a tile falls off, and old remodeling projects weren’t completed accurately.//

Insulation: within exterior walls are insulated for less heat transfer, while interior walls are insulated for sound control


Styles: cased openings for doors, open doorway, exterior sliding door, indoor accordion door, folding doors, interior pocket door, front exterior door, swing door, standard interior door

Considerations: energy efficient factors, sturdy doors, quality materials, and paintable or stainable surface.


Styles: Single framed or double hung windows, casement windows, hopper windows, awning windows, single and double sliding windows, glass block windows.

Operational: Windows could be fixed or operated.

Security: security safety glass and security locks.

Privacy: tinted safety windows, secure blinds, window blackout treatments.

Cost: actual materials, total size, quality type of construction, and use of energy-efficient ideas.

Plumbing Fixtures:

Re-use existing: vintage and antique and nearly new or slightly used fixtures; just plain clean and everyday use.

New: inspect to notice if the plumbing junctions will work

Water Access Considerations:

Locate: to cut construction expenses, try to locate the kitchen close to bathrooms and laundry to take benefit of plumbing pipes.

Flexible pipes: require some unique connections 

Central shut-off: makes it easier if some issue arrives

Supply lines: water lines to refrigerators, coffee pots, and dishwashers

Outdoor items: make sure it’s protected from cold and hot weather 

Drain Pipes:

Code requirements: minimum wide for stack and vent pipes

Sinks: will need vent pipes


City water: usually, a mainline is in the front or rear of the property

Septic: Size is important; if too small, you will have to not pull in garage disposal emptying may be needed more often

Noise in the house:

Reduce Noise that is Generated 

Buffer the sound noise created

Sound-Insulating Construction Methods


19. Environmental and Sustainable considerations

Sustainable Building Design


Promote healthy places to live and work

Enhance and protect natural ecosystems and biodiversity

Improve air and water quality 

Reduce solid waste 

Conserve natural resources 

Policies and Practices:

Think small, compact, minimalist 

Specify environmentally healthy

Low transportation cost to the project

Energy efficient 

Water conservative 

Energy-efficient light source

Passive solar heat 

Energy efficient windows

Standard size materials to reduce waste 

Recycle construction and demolition waste 

The product that is Recycled 

Evaluation Method:

Recycled: Recycling changes materials that would otherwise become waste into valuable resources. 

Recyclable: a recyclable material can be collected, separated, or recovered from the solid waste stream and used again or made into other useful products

Degradable: degradable materials will break down and return to nature in a reasonable timeframe after disposal.

Salvaged or reclaimed: generally used to describe materials reused for a similar purpose in a building project.

Re-purposed: using a product, material, or item for a new purpose in a project 

*Green Building Programs, Products, and Materials

LEED for Homes

Buildings are designed for:

Lower operating cost and increased asset value 

Reduce waste sent to landfills 

Conserve all energy and water to be healthier and safer for occupants 

Reduce harmful greenhouse gas emissions 

Qualify for tax rebates, zoning allowances, and other building incentives in many communities.

NAHB Research Center

There are six area categories:

Lot design, preparation, and development 

Resource efficiency

Energy efficiency 

Water efficiency 

Indoor environmental quality

Operational, maintenance, and building owner education


Technical performance standard for: 

Energy efficiency

Indoor air tightness quality

Environmental responsibility at home construction 

Scientific Certification Systems 

Manufacturers and businesses offer a variety of certification programs in multiple areas.



Chemical emissions 

Cradle to Cradle certification 

A third-party eco-label assesses product safety for humans and the environment from a lifecycle perspective. 

Material health 

Material will utilization

Renewable energy use

Water stewardship

Social responsibility


Products that are kinder to the environment.

Certification for wood products

Forest Stewardship Council

American tree farm system

Program for the endorsement force certification 

Certified Recycling_ Definitions




Salvaged or Reclaimed


Energy issues 

Requirements for windows, doors, and walls:

U-factors: for windows, skylights, and doors. U-factor requirements a measurement of heat conductivity measurement or thermal transfer information. The lower than U-factor, the more energy-efficient the items are 

Solar heat gain coefficient: for windows. A method of the amount of solar energy that passes through the glass. 

R-value of insulation: for floors, walls, and ceilings. The R-value calculations for the resistance to heat transfer, and the higher the R-value, the better the product.

Government City Building Codes

Check with local areas


20. Water Standards for Water Quality

Two types of water quality standards: 

Primary drinking water standards 

Water is safe to drink or digest 

No disease-causing organisms

No toxic chemicals

No radioactive contaminants 

Secondary drinking water standards 

Water is functional or aesthetic, safe levels :

Chloride, Iron, Magnesium, Sulfur, pH

Water Contaminants

  1. a) Water hardness

High mineral content: Calcium, Magnesium 

  1. b) iron bacteria

A reddish-brown slime is found in pipes and fixtures. 

Usually comes from standing water.

 Hard Water Classifications Rating

 Grains per Gallon/Milligrams per Liter (mg/L) 

or Parts per Million (ppm)

 Soft is less than 1.0, and less than 17.1 

 Slightly Soft, 1.0 – 3.5, 17.1 – 60

 Moderately soft, 3.5 – 7.0, 60 – 120 

 Hard, 7.0 – 10.5, 120 – 180

 Very Hard, Over 10.5 , Over 180

Private water systems should be tested for: 

Total chloroform bacteria, Nitrate, pH, Total dissolved solids 

Water treatment methods

Typical contaminants removed 

Activated carbon filtration:

Odors, chlorine, radon, organic chemicals

Anion exchange:

Nitrate, sulfate, arsenic


Chloroform bacteria, iron, iron bacteria, manganese


Metals, inorganic chemicals, and most contaminants 

Neutralizing filtration:

Low pH

Oxidation filtration:

Iron, manganese

Particle or fiber filtration: 

Dissolved solids, iron particles

Reverse osmosis: 

Metals, inorganic chemicals, and most contaminants 

Water softening (cation exchange):

Calcium, magnesium, iron 

Water treatment equipment:


Carbon or charcoal filters treat to taste and odor problems, chlorine residue, organic chemicals, and radon.

Fiber filters or mechanical filters trap particles in the water, such as sand and soil. 

Usually, only the cold water line is filtered

Water softeners 

Water softeners remove the calcium and magnesium that cause water hardness 

Some individuals are interested in the health effects of additional salt in the water 

The solution is to only soften the hot water side for baths and cleaning

The solution is a cold water line to the kitchen for drinking water

Iron removal equipment

Iron and magnesium can cause taste, odor, staining, and appearance problems. 

Removal can be complex; it depends on the form found in the water 

To remove iron: Iron filter, water softener, polyphosphate feeder, chlorinator and filter, or aerator and filter

Treats all water


Treats low pH or acidic water 

Treats all water

Distillation units 

Provides nearly pure water by boiling water until it evaporates, then condensing it 

Treats cold water in the kitchen

Reverse osmosis unit

Will remove any suspended or dissolved pollutants

Treats cold water in the kitchen

Disinfectant methods

Used to disinfect water safe to drink 

All water is treated

A carbon filter may be used to remove the excess Chlorine 

Benefits of clean water : 

Reduce pollution caused by excessive water in our wastewater system 

Healthier natural wetlands 

Reduce the need for water and wastewater treatment facilities 

Fewer dams to provide water 

Reduced energy to treat the water 

Gray-water is:

Collecting And using household water from the sinks and washing machines for outside us.

  1. Air Quality

Source control:

Minimize or prevent air pollution 

Control moisture 

Control cooking odors and grease 


Bi-products from gas combustion

Choose products with low VOCs _Volatile Organic Compounds:

Carbon-based compounds 

Wood preservatives and finishes

Glues and adhesives

Solvents with a strong smell usually evaporate easily

Renovation hazards :

Demolition dust 

Dust into the heated air system 

Lead-based paint 


Dead animals in walls, etc

Demolition waste

Air Cleaning

Air filter and HVAC

The air filter in the room 

Cooking ventilation

Moisture in the Home

Moisture from cooking 

Moisture from showers 

The solution exhaust fans


Food waste

It is organic, biodegradable, can be composted, and need not be put in a landfill.

Packaging waste May be separated for recycling if possible

Paper waste, some could be recycled, and some composted it